Wormholes are a hypothetical shortcut that links two regions of a space-time (or hyperspace). It contains two entrances which are designated by mouths, connected by a tunnel, whose minimum circumference is called throat. It is possible to visualize a wormhole through an immersion diagram, which idealizes a space-time with only two spatial dimensions according to Dr. Francisco Lobo of the UL Nuclear Physics Center.
The term wormhole was created by American physicist John Wheeler in 1957. However, the idea of wormholes had already been proposed in 1921 by the German mathematician Hermann Weyl in connection with his analysis of the mass in terms of the energy of the electromagnetic field.
"This analysis forces one to consider situations in which there is a network flow of lines of force through which topologists could call a multiply connected loop or space and that physicists could be excused for calling it more vividly a 'wormhole'. "
-John Wheeler at Annals of Physics
The name wormholes comes from an analogy used to explain the phenomenon. Just as a worm that wanders through the shell of an apple could take a short cut to the opposite side of the fruit peel, making its way through the crumb, instead of moving across the surface there, a traveler passing by Worm hole would take a shortcut to the opposite side of the universe through a topologically unusual tunnel.
Sci-fi writers often consider black holes for rapid interstellar travel. They imagine intrepid travelers jumping into a black hole and suddenly finding themselves in a distant region of the Universe. However, very serious objections can be raised to interstellar travel through black holes.
Even if someone found a wormhole and traveled through it, scientists are not sure how that would affect the individual. Some believe that a wormhole would not remain stable long enough to allow passage. And there are theories that suggest that even if it remains stable, the traveler would be changed in indeterminate ways and could experience damage to the heart or brain, and possibly even death.
Firstly, tidal forces in the vicinity of the black hole can produce accelerations so large that they would crush any traveler by compressing it transversely and stretching it in the longitudinal direction. Secondly, the boundary of the black hole, known as the horizon of events, can be considered as a one-way "membrane", through which objects enter but are unable to leave. Therefore, a trip in both directions is strictly prohibited.
Physicists have been quite skeptical of wormholes since its formulation. However, a revival of this idea occurred in the late 1980s, partly due to a challenge by Carl Sagan to Kip Thorne about the real possibility of rapid interstellar travel, an idea used in his book Contact, which gave rise to a Movie with the same name.
Solutions of the Einstein equations (which are commonly used in calculations in the field of relativity) were found that had some peculiar characteristics. Namely, the matter constituting the wormhole has a negative mass. It is sometimes said that this matter is "exotic" because it violates some energy conditions that are fundamental to some of the theorems of General Relativity. Apparently, the laws of classical physics prohibit negative masses, but quantum physics predicts their existence by violating, consequently, some of these energy conditions. Would an infinitely advanced civilization build a wormhole for interstellar travel? Would the laws of physics allow the construction of wormholes and the consequent topological (ie, the geometry of the universe) change? These are subjects that continue to be the subject of a very intense investigation, although there are many difficulties.
Thomas Roman, another scholar of this subject, offers another interesting perspective. He considers the formation of a wormhole at the height of the Big Bang through a quantum fluctuation that expanded exponentially in the period of inflation of the Universe, reaching classic dimensions. Any hope of building a wormhole depends on the future discovery of exotic matter. Even if an exotic field were available, there are other difficulties, namely: the possibility of quantum mechanics to prohibit a topological change of space-time; The wormholes may be highly unstable; And exotic matter may interact strongly with normal matter, which will prevent a crossing.
Another astonishing consideration of wormholes is their possible use as a time machine, although this apparently violated causality, that is, the fact that the effect precedes the cause. Consequently, some very difficult paradoxes arise.
Journeys into the past or even the mere possibility of sending signals back in time open up a real Pandora's box of puzzles and paradoxes.
Lorentzian wormholes, known as Schwarzschild Wormholes or Einstein-Rosen bridges are bridges between areas of space that can be modeled as vacuum solutions for Einstein's field equations by combining the models of a black hole and a white hole. This solution was discovered by Albert Einstein and his colleague Nathan Rosen, who published the result in 1935. However, in 1962 John A. Wheeler and Robert W. Fuller published a paper demonstrating that this type of wormhole is unstable, and that It will collapse instantly as soon as it forms, preventing even light from getting through it.
Before the problems of stability of Schwarzschild wormholes became apparent, it was proposed that quasars were white holes, constituting the end of such wormholes. Although Schwarzschild's wormholes are not transposable, their existence inspired Kip Thorne to imagine transposable wormholes created by keeping open the "throat" of a Schwarzschild wormhole with exotic matter (matter having mass / negative energy).
In conclusion: despite all the difficulties presented, there is no irrefutable proof that bans the existence of wormholes as solutions of Einstein's equations of gravitation. So we have no choice but to admit the wormhole passable in space-time as a real possibility. It will be?????
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